Что почитать: свежие записи из разных блогов

Записи с тэгом #история из разных блогов

Gun_Grave, блог «From the Cradle to the Grave»

«Domus regis» и «Familia regis» в раннее новое время

https://cyberleninka.ru/article/v/domus-regis-i-familia-regis-v-rannee-novoe-vremya

  Ну все, я добралась и до таких вот статей. Что-то как-то даже неожиданно. Но статья действительно интересная.

Gun_Grave, блог «From the Cradle to the Grave»

Приюты для кэбменов

Публикация из блога «Транспорт и связь» (автор: Шано):

Оригинал взят у в "Как это можно променять приличный кэб с добрым рысаком на омнибусы!"(с)Cabmen's Shelter

Однажды, в дождливый лондонский вечер 1874 года, капитан Джордж Армстронг, в недавнем прошлом офицер Ост-Индской компании, захотел взять кэб. Экипажи стояли в ожидании пассажиров, но поблизости не было видно ни одного извозчика. После недолгих поисков Армстронг обнаружил их в ближайшем пабе. Там они прятались от непогоды, и, конечно, не отказывали себе в выпивке — в такой-то промозглый день!

Капитан подумал, что если бы кэбмены имели свои собственные закусочные, им бы не пришлось укрываться от непогоды в пабах. Так появился Фонд укрытий для кэбменов, организация, открывавшая безалкогольные места отдыха для водителей кэбов, где были столы, лавки и кухня для приготовления пищи. С 1875 по 1914 г. был построен 61 такой приют. До наших дней дошли 13. Приюты выглядят скорее как большие, покрашенные в веселый зеленый цвет, сараи.

 

Photobucket

 

полный текст

Gessen-Gray Regina, блог «Desert Castle»

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Всякая всячина над которой я сейчас работаю...
Мышь-вампир на подставочке:

Vampire bat 1
by GessenG-Regina оn DeviantArt
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Vampire bat 2
by GessenG-Regina оn DeviantArt

Змей-искуситель:

Snake in the garden
by GessenG-Regina оn DeviantArt
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Snake in the garden closeup
by GessenG-Regina оn DeviantArt

Forbidden fruit
by GessenG-Regina оn DeviantArt

Рождественский олень:

Festive deer
by GessenG-Regina оn DeviantArt
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Festive deer closeup
by GessenG-Regina оn DeviantArt

Знаменитый бирюзовый олень с Youtube:

Youtube deer
by GessenG-Regina оn DeviantArt
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Youtube deer closeup
by GessenG-Regina оn DeviantArt

Подставка под Матурина:

Maturin display base closeup
by GessenG-Regina оn DeviantArt
Будущее потомство Пеннивайза:

Pennywises' secret
by GessenG-Regina оn DeviantArt
Латунный фрегат в янтарном море:

Frigate
by GessenG-Regina оn DeviantArt
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Frigate closeup
by GessenG-Regina оn DeviantArt

Gun_Grave, блог «From the Cradle to the Grave»

Marie Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans


Marie Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans. Portrait by Pierre Gobert, 1718.

Gun_Grave, блог «From the Cradle to the Grave»

Каролина Бранденбург-Ансбахская


  Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach (1683–1737), Queen Consort of King George II (after Charles Jervas) by Enoch Seeman the younger

Gun_Grave, блог «From the Cradle to the Grave»

Dressing up a Regency officer 1812

Gessen-Gray Regina, блог «Desert Castle»

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Дублирую эту статейку ради одного комментария под оной. Источник: http://www.cracked.com/article_20448_5-ways-pirates-were-way-more-modern-than-you-realize.html/?utm_source=facebook&utm_medium=fanpage&utm_campaign=new+article&wa_ibsrc=fanpage

5 ways pirates were way more modern than you realize.
We tend to think of pirates as bloodthirsty thieves, brutal rapists, and vicious murderers, concerned оnly with indulging their every whim and amassing as much wealth as possible, forever living at the expense of others. And this is absolutely true. However, in some ways, pirates were bizarrely ahead of the societal curve. In fact, some of their viewpoints would be heartily endorsed by the campus newspaper of a liberal arts college.

скрытый текст5. Pirates had health insurance.
You probably feel safe in assuming that pirates didn’t have much in the way of medical benefits, because the 16th and 17th centuries didn’t have much in the way of actual medicine – the most effective treatment for gangrene was a woodcutter’s ax, a bucket of hot tar, and a bamboo reed to bite down оn. Beyond that, when a typical workday consists of shooting terrified sailors in the face while rival pirates hurl themselves at you with blood-tarnished daggers clenched between their teeth, you’d imagine you’d be expected to cover the cost of any lost limbs or eye gougings оn your own doubloon.
But you would be wrong. In reality, the crew of renowned pirate/liquor mascot Captain Henry Morgan had оne of the first comprehensive, all-inclusive health insurance systems in recorded history. Before the assault оn Panama, Morgan drew up a charter for his crew that guaranteed certain benefits for any man who was injured in battle. Any оne of his 2000-strong pirate crew was entitled to 600 pieces of eight for the loss of a hand or a foot, 1800 pieces for the loss of both legs, 200 pieces for оne eye, and 2000 pieces for total blindness – that’s about $153000 in modern currency. We assume peg legs and eye patches were covered by a joint flex account.
Also, any member of the crew could opt to receive his de-limbing payout in slaves rather than money (we said they were progressive, we didn’t say they were paragons of virtue). So, you can probably go into your boss’ office right now and announce that your health insurance policy is worse than that of a 17th century marauding sea criminal and be totally correct in your assessment. You would likely also start noticing your photo hanging up everywhere next to a list of emergency page codes for the entire building.

4. Pirates had a form of gay marriage.
To be sure, there was a certain amount of situational homosexuality that occurred among the all-male crews of buccaneer ships back in the golden age of piracy, much like there is in modern-day prisons and professional wrestling organizations. But it’s not as though those super grizzled, hyper-masculine throat-slitting machines engaged in same-sex coupling, right? It’s a fiercely divisive subject even today, so 400 years ago it must have been absolute insanity to even suggest two men getting married, much less two pirates.
On the contrary, some historians claim that the original “Pirates of the Caribbean” (pirate crews who docked, traded, and intermittently lived in port towns in the West Indies during the 17th century) had entire communities where homosexual couples were considered perfectly acceptable. Picture that scene in Tortuga from the Disney movie, оnly loaded with gay men.
You see, pirates had a form of civil partnership called matelotage, a marriage-like institution wherein two male pirates shared all of their… OK, we need to think of another word for “booty” here – let’s go with “loot”. Additionally, each would name the other as his sole inheritor. While this makes a good “I Now Pronounce You Chuck and Larry” kind of economic sense, in as much as it was essentially the оnly kind of financial security a pirate could hope for, some commentators argue that these relationships were also romantic in nature, possibly because matelots could routinely be observed having sex with each other.
In 1645, the French government of Tortuga decided to import thousands of prostitutes to try to neutralize the rampant homosexuality, because this was the type of response that governments had to things. Not that it’s likely to have made a great deal of difference, though – pirates in a matelotage shared everything, including wives. Adding mixed threesomes to the gay love-in was probably not the outcome France was going for, but, France being France, we can never truly be certain.

3. Pirates practiced religious tolerance.
Pirates have been portrayed throughout history as a superstitious lot of miscreants, so it stands to reason that they would greet any practitioner of an exotic or unfamiliar religion with the same courtesy they would extend to a cannibal bone shaman trying to flay their souls from their bodies with the ceremonial Stoneblade Dagger of a Thousand Screams.
After all, the golden age of piracy began in the 16th century, a time when European Christians were still crusading to Jerusalem to try to kill every Muslim who had the audacity to live there. It wasn’t exactly a period of religious tolerance. We can оnly imagine how pirates would have reacted to, say, a bunch of Muslims.
Actually, as long as there was gold involved, they really didn’t give a shit.
For example, Captain Siemen Danziger brought his pirate squadron to Algiers, an Islamic city in North Africa and оne of the main strongholds of the Ottoman Empire, to set up a safe home base for him to pillage the shit out of the Mediterranean. Danziger was a Dutch Christian, but he didn’t hesitate to offer the Turkish rulers his services as a shipbuilder. And they appointed him their chief naval architect, because it turned out they liked money also.
So, alongside an English pirate captain named John Ward, Danziger showed the Algerians both how to build European style ships and how to defeat them in combat, allowing Algiers to extend its piratical reach all over Europe.
Keep in mind, this was during an era of European history where the pervasive belief was that all non-Christians should be punished with considerable jail time at the very least, and that any Muslim should be killed оn sight with anything in the immediate vicinity that could be crudely fashioned into a weapon. But pirates didn’t cotton to any of that nonsense, particularly when there was booty to be plundered. The Algerians felt the same way, and the two routinely worked together with quantifiable results being the оnly criteria either side gave a shit about.
Again, maybe not a great reason for tolerance, but tolerance nonetheless.

2. Pirates were equal-opportunity employers.
In a time when the job options for women consisted of “servant”, “wife”, and “prostitute” (and all three of which were variations of the word “property”), piracy was an attractively viable career choice. This is because some pirates didn’t give оne peg-legged starfish fart about gender roles when they crewed their ships – if you could murder and pillage with remorseless glee, they’d happily take you aboard. And if a woman wound up out-pirating her scurvy comrades, she could even become captain, as depicted in the historical document Pirates of the Caribbean: At World’s End.
Chin Shih, for example, was a Chinese prostitute who married a pirate captain. When her husband died, she decided to seize control of his fleet, which at the time consisted of more than 1500 ships and over 60000 pirates, because that was a way better option than going back to work at a terrifying hooker barn. Over in Ireland, lady-scoundrel Grace O’Malley commanded 200 men and an entire fleet of pirate galleys, which seems to pale in comparison until you remember that we’re talking about 200 heavily armed Irish career murderers obeying a woman’s orders in the 16th century, at which point it becomes downright inspirational.
But arguably the most famous female pirates were Anne Bonny and Mary Read, who joined the buccaneer crew of Captain Calico Jack. Bonny was married to Jack, and the two of them found Read disguised as a boy and working оn board a Dutch merchant ship they were in the process of robbing. The two women quickly bonded because, equal opportunity notwithstanding, pirates are still goddamned pirates, and being the оnly female among them was probably no easy task.
As a result, Bonny and Read became оne of the most hardcore duos in swashbuckling history, wielding their ferocious craziness like a pirate-themed version of Natural Born Killers, if Woody Harrelson had played both lead roles and was also a woman. They had a frightening reputation even among pirates – when Bonny’s less-than-courageous lover was challenged to a duel, she killed the challenger herself, because she knew her knee-knocking sex dispenser had no chance of winning. Later, when their ship was finally boarded, it was Bonny and Read who stayed оn deck fighting off the king’s soldiers, while Jack hid below with the rest of the men and shattered a lot of illusions.
The three of them were captured, and as Calico Jack was being led away to his execution, Bonny lovingly told him, “Had you fought like a man, you need not have been hang’d like a dog”. We can оnly assume some sassy bailiff overheard and whistled “DAAAYUM” in response.

1. Pirates had democratic elections.
Back in Piratey Times (the official historical term for the 17th century), less than 3% of the population in England had the power to vote. In general, unless you owned a ton of property and your skin was the same color as your powdered wig, nobody in Parliament gave оne rusty chamber pot lid about your opinion. And that was the rule for gentle, educated, law-abiding citizens, so there’s no way illiterate stab-happy pirates would’ve seen the value in the democratic process unless it was voting оn how many punches to throw into a prisoner’s solar plexus before tossing him overboard into a cloud of sharks. Right?
Actually, Jack Ward, a wildly successful pirate captain who deserted from the Royal Navy along with 30 of his shipmates (because high-seas robbery is way more lucrative than being in the military), was elected captain by popular vote of his crew. This pretty much became the process by which every pirate captain was selected – after all, it’s difficult to convince a band of thugs with charming wooden prosthetics to take orders from you while you’re all floating in a boat hundreds of miles from any sort of legal consequence if they don’t unanimously agree you should be in charge.
Some of these grizzled pirates no doubt grasped the complex relationship between elected officials and their constituents, and realized the value in having a leader who both understood and represented their best interests. Others probably based their vote more оn who had killed the most men with his bare hands and/or had the gnarliest fanged-mermaid tattoo. Either way, every pirate had a say, regardless of how frivolous or ignorant, and that’s pretty much the literal definition of democracy.


Собственно, комментарий:
This article should be titled “5 reasons why Pirates were more modern than you think because you don’t know history”. Really, nothing modern or unusual there.

5. Medical insurance. Well, Morgan and several others became famous precisely because no оne else did what they had done. You see, piracy was not necessarily the first career оne though of, and any pirate crew had to have its share of tough, scary people with nothing to lose but it also had to include professional carpenters, metalworkers, blacksmiths, gunsmiths, navigators etc. They were usually people who could find a nice job elsewhere, so they needed some incentives. And voila, some captains decided to throw some medical insurance as a form of advertisement to make sure that the best crew around comes to him and not to his fellow captains. But this was also true for merchant fleet.
4. Matelots had no more to do with gay marriages than business partnerships or two-man police patrols. They were simply a means of organization, a kind of “backup”, that was pretty important when the sailors in question were experienced and needed by captain. It was also popular among other sailors of that era, so pirates simply did what everyone else was doing anyway. Homosexuality was not officially punished (remember that it was a severe crime in most societies) but “buggers”, especially the passive оnes were usually at the, nomen omen, butt end of all the jokes, as it usually happens in prisons. Pirates didn’t give a damn if they knew someone is a bugger, because in law-abiding societies, sodomy was frowned upon as was whoring, drinking, gambling, cursing and stealing, so pirates, who were partial to all those fine vices tended to be much less judgemental.
3. As noted numerous times below, Crusades were dead and gone when the pirates started to roam the high seas, and the dealings with the people of other faith were pretty much the order of the day in many places, the best example Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Furthermore, merchants and entrepreneurs were dealing with various people оn a daily basis, so merchant republics like Venice, Genoa (and, to some extent, also Novgorod) seen nothing bad in dealing with Muslims or pagans, mainly because ideology is nice, but it won’t buy anything. And pirate captains were shrewd entrepreneurs.
2. No, pirates were not “equal opportunity” employers, not even close (this is why pirate females were so renowned – they were extremely rare). Again, “gender roles” is more or less an idea concocted in the times of Industrial Revolution. Prior to that, women were usually free to run their husbands’ affairs and if they possessed the skill, they could have run their workshops and belong to the craft. Please note that Chin Shih and Anne Bonny were wifes of the captain and took the business after their demise. This was order of the day for any craftsman family since Middle Ages, really. And while we’re at it, Elizabeth I, Mary Therese, Catherine the II and Victoria I would be amused (well, the last оne maybe not so) hearing of the “unusual feat of commanding 200 men”.
1. Believe it or not, but elections were much older than modern era, and I’m not speaking about Ancient Greeks. Since the Middle Ages, elections were pretty popular in any merchant community that wanted to make sure they are led by people who are proficient in making the whole organization wealthy. City councils were electing mayors, merchant republics were electing their leaders and crafts were electing their aldermen and members of the ruling bodies, usually in popular voting. Sure, country-wide, popular vote is relatively new idea but in smaller professional communities (and remember, pirate crew were exactly that) it was a really old tradition.

Ещё рекомендую сайт: http://www.privateers.ru/?template=light

Gun_Grave, блог «From the Cradle to the Grave»

Лондон второй половины XIX века

Публикация из блога «Лондон и вокруг него» (автор: Шано):

Оригинал взят у в Лондон времён Чарльза Диккенса: старинные фотографии

В 2012 году исполняется 200 лет со дня рождения Чарльза Диккенса, и к юбилею знаменитого английского писателя была опубликована коллекция старинных фотоснимков Лондона викторианской эпохи - Dickens's Victorian London. Эти фотографии позволят нам отправиться в прошлое и окунуться в атмосферу тех далёких дней...

 

 

Так выглядела знаменитая улица Strand во второй половине 19 века. Слева - Сомерсет-хаус, где отец Диккенса работал клерком в одной из государственных контор.

 

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Gun_Grave, блог «From the Cradle to the Grave»

Японская армия в Средние века

 Оригинал взят у qebedo в От сотайсё до асигару. Спасибо Шано за наводку.

 

 1. Японское средневековое войско возглавлял командующий — тайсё. Это мог быть глава клана — сюго (губернатор провинции) или сюго (сэнгоку) даймё (феодал — фактический владелец одной либо нескольких провинций). Впрочем, на поле боя он появлялся редко — только когда речь шла о жизни и смерти клана, либо каком-то супер-важном походе, для чего собирались все силы, а доверить подчиненным было никак нельзя.

Имагава Ёсимото — самонатуральный сэнгоку даймё

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Gun_Grave, блог «From the Cradle to the Grave»

Dressing up a Jacobean Lady

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